网络专车怎么管 Car-hailing regulations to set China precedent

本文摘要:A set of proposed regulations for China’s online ride-hailing industry are shaping up as a bellwether of how much internet “disruption” Beijing will tolerate — and are being closely watched by the country’s biggest tech companies.为中国网络大约租车


A set of proposed regulations for China’s online ride-hailing industry are shaping up as a bellwether of how much internet “disruption” Beijing will tolerate — and are being closely watched by the country’s biggest tech companies.为中国网络大约租车行业制订的一系列建议书中的监管规定将要成型,它们将反映出有中国政府将在多大程度上忽视互联网的“政治宣传”。中国仅次于的几家高科技企业于是以紧密注目这些规定。Last month the Ministry of Transport published draft rules that would legalise the nascent sector but could also stifle it with bureaucratic red tape, and gave the industry one month to respond.上个月,中国交通部发布了涉及规定的《印发稿》,并给了该行业1个月的对此时间。

这些规定不会彰显这个新生行业合法性,但也可能会令其该行业被官僚主义繁文缛节所助长。That has thrown ride-hailing companies including San Francisco-based Uber and Didi Kuaidi, its local competitor, into a behind-the-scenes lobbying effort over the new rules, which could raise their costs prohibitively.涉及规定《印发稿》的发布,让还包括优步(Uber)和滴滴慢的(Didi Kuaidi)在内的叫车应用于企业,不得不重新加入了环绕新的规定的一轮幕后游说活动(新的规定可能会让它们的运营成本提升到无利可图的地步)。优步是一家总部派驻旧金山的企业,而滴滴慢的则是它在中国国内的竞争者。The sector’s potential is huge. Didi, in an investor presentation in June, predicted that the Chinese ride-hailing market would be worth $50bn annually by 2020. Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, reckons China accounts for 30 per cent of his company’s rides worldwide and will overtake the US by year-end.该行业的潜力是极大的。

滴滴微信(Didi)在今年6月一次向投资者做到的报告中预计,到2020年,中国叫车应用于市场每年的规模或超过500亿美元。优步首席执行官兹拉维斯愠灓尼克(Travis Kalanick)估算,中国占优势步全球车上次数的30%,今年年底以前,中国的车上次数将多达美国。But the regulatory environment is a wild card. It is technically illegal for private cars to operate as taxis in China, though enforcement is patchy.不过,中国的监管环境毕竟个极大的变数。

理论上说道,把私家车当作出租汽车运营在中国是违法的——尽管这方面的执法人员十分牢固。More important, experts see the car-hailing rules as precedent setting. As companies including Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu push into heavily regulated, state-dominated sectors from finance to healthcare, the taxi industry is where many of the battles over regulation are being fought.更加最重要的是,专家们指出,这些叫车服务法规不会确认先例。在还包括阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、(Tencent)和百度(Baidu)在内的企业转入一个个受到严苛监管、由政府主导的行业——从金融业到医疗保健业——之际,出租车行业是环绕监管的斗争的一个主战场。Car-hailing regulations “will be an indicator, a precedent for things to come”, says Jenny Lee, Beijing-based managing partner at GGV Capital, which has invested in Didi Kuaidi.叫车服务法规“将起命令起到,为将来的事情奠定先例,”对滴滴慢的展开投资的纪源资本(GGV Capital)管理合伙人李宏玮(Jenny Lee)回应。

“This is a space that all the big guys are in. It’s not a strategic sector, not finance, telecoms or media. The vested interests are local taxi companies, without a lot of political clout. If this doesn’t open up, it’s bad news for the rest of the [internet] industry.”“这是一个所有大公司都参予了的领域。这不是一个战略性行业——不是金融、电信,也不是媒体。

既得利益者是没过于多政治影响力的地方出租车公司。如果这个领域不对外开放,这对其他(互联网)行业而言是个坏消息。”The proposed framework would oblige internet apps to register all their cars as commercial vehicles, subjecting them to the same laws as taxis including a ban on vehicles older than eight years.新规《印发稿》拒绝互联网叫车应用于将所有终端平台的车辆注册为营运车辆,需遵从和出租车一样的法规,还包括8年就得出厂。The new laws would require each driver’s car to be licensed separately rather than a being covered by a company licence. Both Uber and Didi say that roughly three-quarters of their drivers are part-time, and the new rules would force them off the road.新规《印发稿》拒绝每个司机的车辆分开获得营运许可,无法仅有由企业所获得许可覆盖面积。

优步和滴滴都回应,它们平台上约有四分之三的司机都是全职的,新规将被迫这些司机退出获取服务。“Part-time drivers and their vehicles should be allowed on the road in order to make the sharing economy really about sharing,” says Didi. The company says most of its drivers do four to five rides per day, and licensing as commercial vehicles “would make it prohibitive”.滴滴回应:“建议给全职司机和车辆腾出发展空间……迎合和推展中国分享经济发展的大潮。”该公司回应,滴滴平台上75%的司机每天相接单数不多达4单,如果拒绝网约专车车辆更改为营运性质,“有可能使大部分全职司机和车辆解散”。

Didi Kuaidi, formed in February by the merger of Didi Dache and Kuaidi Dache, is backed by Tencent and Alibaba, China’s two largest internet companies, which have a combined shareholding of around 25 per cent. It says it controls 83 per cent of the car-hailing market.今年2月,滴滴微信和慢的微信拆分为滴滴慢的。滴滴慢的获得了中国仅次于的两家互联网公司(Tencent)和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的投资,这两家公司共计享有滴滴慢的大约25%的股权。

滴滴慢的声称其掌控了叫车市场83%的市场份额。Uber, in which Chinese search engine Baidu holds an undisclosed stake, is in second place with a market share that Mr Kalanick puts at 30-35 per cent.优步在市场份额方面名列第二,卡兰尼克称之为超过30%到35%。中国搜索引擎百度(Baidu)享有优步的一部分股权,明确多少没公开发表。

Both are optimistic about their staying power. Each expects to invest over $1bn this year in China, spent largely on subsidies aimed at grabbing market share.滴滴慢的和优步都寄予厚望自己的长久生存能力。两家公司都预计今年自己将对中国市场投资逾10亿美元,大部分用作补贴车资,其目的是夺回市场份额。But there is no consensus in the government about how to oversee the sector, which licensed taxi drivers complain costs them money and jobs.但目前就如何监管这个行业,政府内部尚不共识,而有许可的出租车司机责怪这个行业让他们遭受了金钱损失,丧失了工作机会。

Last month [October]Shanghai gave Didi the country’s first municipal operating licence after the company agreed to a far slimmer set of rules — a pilot programme many thought could be eventually rolled out across the country.10月8日,在滴滴慢的表示同意遵从一套精简得多的规则后,上海市向滴滴慢的授予了中国首张市级网络大约租车平台资质许可证。很多人指出,这一试点最后有可能推展至全国。Optimism evaporated when the transport ministry just days later published its national rules.悲观情绪没持续多久——仅有两天后,交通部之后公布了全国性专车法规《印发稿》。

“There are some positive bases and we’re very encouraged,” says Didi. The draft framework “actually recognises the legal existence of the car-hailing industry — but legal within a pretty constrictive set of rules”.滴滴回应,“有一些理由维持悲观,我们十分不受激励”,意见稿“实际否认了叫车行业不存在的合法性——但只在一套容许非常严苛的法规范围内具备合法性。”In China, where respect for authority is good business practice, Didi and Uber have couched their dissent carefully. But citizen groups and experts on regulation — who claim to have no connection to the industry — have begun a loud campaign against the proposed rules.在中国,认同当局是对经营有益的作法,滴滴和优步传达异议时都十分慎重。

但民间组织和法规方面的专家——这些专家声称和该行业没关联——早已开始大力倾听赞成关于专车法规的《印发稿》。“There are massive flaws in the draft and it should not be enacted,“ wrote six economists last month in an editorial in Caijing, a leading financial magazine, because “it will severely hinder the development of the internet transportation service industry”.在中国主要财经类杂志《财经》上月的一篇评论中,六名经济学家写到,“《印发稿》不存在根本性缺失,不不应实施”,因为“这种缺失将不会相当严重妨碍网络大约租车这种新型业态的发展”。

The outcry has forced the transport ministry into a public response.这些抗议被迫交通部做出公开发表对此。In an interview published by Xinhua, the official news agency, ministry inspector Xu Yahua said that “as a key service industry, it is necessary to have a set of industry admittance regulations”.官媒新华社公开发表了一篇对交通部运输服务司巡视员徐亚华的专访。

他在专访中回应:“它作为一个关系人民群众上下班安全性的最重要服务性行业,我们制订适当的市场准入条件和服务规范也是必需的。”But he added: “As for exactly how this will be done, we need to listen to the suggestions from society, and gradually perfect it in practice.”但他又说道:“至于管理的明确尺度,我指出必须充份普遍地征询社会意见,也必须在实践中基础上不断完善。